Costs of epibionts on Antarctic sea spiders
Lane, Steven J. et al. (2018),
Lane, Steven J., Tobalske, Bret W., Moran, Amy L., Shishido, Caitlin M., Woods, H. Arthur (2018),
Nearly all marine animals harbor epibionts, organisms living on their body surfaces. The positive or negative effects that epibionts have on their hosts depend on many factors, including the size and location of the epibionts on their host. The present study examined the effects of epibionts on gas exchange, locomotion, and drag of three species of Antarctic sea spiders (pycnogonids). Sea spiders are a cosmopolitan group of marine arthropods that lack gills and rely instead on the diffusion of oxygen directly across their cuticle. Encrusting epibionts, such as bryozoans and algae, had only minor effects on surface oxygen levels, but they reduced the functional diffusion coefficient of oxygen through the cuticle by about half. Although these effects are significant locally and may be severe in individuals with high coverage by epibionts, the total coverage on most individuals was not high enough to significantly alter oxygen fluxes into the animal. Macroepibionts, such as barnacles, had no effect on host walking speeds, but they increased by two-to-threefold the drag experienced by host sea spiders. This likely increases the energetic costs of walking and increases the chance of being dislodged by high currents. These results suggest that epibionts can impose diverse costs to their hosts but only in subtle ways that depend on total epibiont coverage of the host and rates of water flow.
Gut anatomical properties and microbial functional assembly promote lignocellulose deconstruction and col…
Ceja-Navarro, J.A. et al. (2019),
Ceja-Navarro, J.A., Karaoz, U., Bill, M., Hao, Z., White III, R.A., Arellano, A., Ramanculova, L., Filley, T., Berry, T., Conrad, M., Blackwell, M., Nicora, C., Kim, Y.M., Reardon, P., Lipton, M., Adkins, J.N., Pett-Ridge, J., Brodie, E.L., Ceja-Navarro, Javier A., Karaoz, Ulas, Bill, Markus, Hao, Zhao, White, Richard A., Arellano, Abelardo, Ramanculova, Leila, Filley, Timothy R., Berry, Timothy D., Conrad, Mark E., Blackwell, Meredith, Nicora, Carrie D., Kim, Young Mo, Reardon, Patrick N., Lipton, Mary S., Adkins, Joshua N., Pett-Ridge, Jennifer, Brodie, Eoin L. (2019),
Beneficial microbial associations enhance the fitness of most living organisms, and wood-feeding insects offer some of the most striking examples of this. Odontotaenius disjunctus is a wood-feeding beetle that possesses a digestive tract with four main compartments, each of which contains well-differentiated microbial populations, suggesting that anatomical properties and separation of these compartments may enhance energy extraction from woody biomass. Here, using integrated chemical analyses, we demonstrate that lignocellulose deconstruction and fermentation occur sequentially across compartments, and that selection for microbial groups and their metabolic pathways is facilitated by gut anatomical features. Metaproteogenomics showed that higher oxygen concentration in the midgut drives lignocellulose depolymerization, while a thicker gut wall in the anterior hindgut reduces oxygen diffusion and favours hydrogen accumulation, facilitating fermentation, homoacetogenesis and nitrogen fixation. We demonstrate that depolymerization continues in the posterior hindgut, and that the beetle excretes an energy- and nutrient-rich product on which its offspring subsist and develop. Our results show that the establishment of beneficial microbial partners within a host requires both the acquisition of the microorganisms and the formation of specific habitats within the host to promote key microbial metabolic functions. Together, gut anatomical properties and microbial functional assembly enable lignocellulose deconstruction and colony subsistence on an extremely nutrient-poor diet.
Acute intrarenal angiotensin (1-7) infusion decreases diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration but inc…
Persson, Patrik et al. (2019),
Persson, Patrik, Fasching, Angelica, Palm, Fredrik (2019),
Aim: Common kidney alterations early after the onset of insulinopenic diabetes include glomerular hyperfiltration, increased oxygen consumption and tissue hypoxia. Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in most of these early alterations. The RAAS peptide angiotensin (1-7) has the potential to modulate RAAS-mediated alterations in kidney function. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the acute effects of angiotensin (1-7) in the kidney of insulinopenic type 1 diabetic rat and the results compared to that of normoglycaemic controls. Methods: Renal haemodynamics and oxygen homeostasis were measured 3 weeks after administration of streptozotocin before and after acute intrarenal infusion of angiotensin (1-7) at a dose of 400 ng min −1 . Results: Arterial pressure and renal blood flow were similar between groups and not affected by exogenous angiotensin (1-7). Diabetics presented with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased urinary sodium excretion and elevated kidney oxygen consumption. Angiotensin (1-7) infusion normalized glomerular filtration, increased urinary sodium excretion, decreased proximal tubular reabsorption, and elevated kidney oxygen consumption even further. The latter resulting in tubular electrolyte transport inefficiency. Angiotensin (1-7) did not affect tissue oxygen tension and had no significant effects in controls on any of the measured parameters. Conclusion: Diabetes results in increased responsiveness to elevated levels of angiotensin (1-7) which is manifested as inhibition of tubular sodium transport and normalization of glomerular filtration. Furthermore, elevated angiotensin (1-7) levels increase kidney oxygen consumption in the diabetic kidney even further which affects tubular electrolyte transport efficiency negatively.
A novel acidification mechanism for greatly enhanced oxygen supply to the fish retina
Damsgaard, Christian et al. (2020),
Damsgaard, Christian, Lauridsen, Henrik, Harter, Till S, Kwan, Garfield T, Thomsen, Jesper S, Funder, Anette MD, Supuran, Claudiu T, Tresguerres, Martin, Matthews, Philip GD, Brauner, Colin J, Harter, Till S., Kwan, Garfield T., Thomsen, Jesper S., Funder, Anette M.D., Supuran, Claudiu T., Matthews, Philip G.D., Brauner, Colin J. (2020),
Previously, we showed that the evolution of high acuity vision in fishes was directly associated with their unique pH-sensitive hemoglobins that allow O2 to be delivered to the retina at PO2 s more than ten-fold that of arterial blood (Damsgaard et al., 2019). Here, we show strong evidence that vacuolar-type H+-ATPase and plasma-accessible carbonic anhydrase in the vascular structure supplying the retina act together to acidify the red blood cell leading to O2 secretion. In vivo data indicate that this pathway primarily affects the oxygenation of the inner retina involved in signal processing and transduction, and that the evolution of this pathway was tightly associated with the morphological expansion of the inner retina. We conclude that this mechanism for retinal oxygenation played a vital role in the adaptive evolution of vision in teleost fishes.